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In , both Idar and Oberstein were granted town rights, and finally in , they were forcibly united along with the municipalities of Algenrodt and Tiefenstein by the Nazis to form the modern town of Idar-Oberstein.
The constituent community of Oberstein grew out of the Imperially immediate Lordship of Oberstein. The core of the area over which the lordship held sway was framed by the Nahe, the Idarbach, the Göttenbach and the Ringelbach.
It is known from archaeological finds that human settlement in what is now Idar goes back to the very earliest times.
The constituent community of Idar on the Nahe's right bank belonged, as did the villages of Enzweiler, Algenrodt, Mackenrodt , Hettenrodt , Hettstein, Obertiefenbach and Kirschweiler , to the Idarbann.
This area belonged mostly to the Lords of Oberstein, and it therefore shares a history with Oberstein; however, in some centres, notably Tiefenbach and Kirschweiler, some estates and rights were held by other lords, such as the Waldgraves and Rhinegraves and Tholey Abbey.
The constituent community of Tiefenstein arose from the merger of the villages of Tiefenbach and Hettstein in This Idarbann community's territorial history is the same as Idar's and Oberstein's.
Tiefenbach was mentioned as an estate in a document; a further documentary mention from cannot be related to the village with any certainty.
Hettstein was mentioned as Henzestein or Hezerten in and had among its inhabitants Waldgravial subjects.
The village of Algenrodt had its first certain documentary mention as Alekenrod in a Oberstein enfeoffment document.
But for this, Algenrodt shares a history with the other Idarbann communities. Enzweiler boasts traces of human habitation going back to Roman times.
In , Tholey Abbey owned a mill near Enzweiler. The village itself might have arisen in the 14th century, and it was always part of the Idarbann.
The village of Georg-Weierbach north of the Nahe, built in a way resembling terraces on land that falls steeply towards the river, likely goes back to the foundation of a church by Archbishop of Mainz Hatto II in the 10th century.
In the 11th century, the village was mentioned in connection with the Lords of Wirebach that is, Weierbach. In , the village, which was for a short time held by the Lords of Randeck, was largely sold off to the Waldgraves and Rhinegraves and grouped into the Amt of Kyrburg.
Göttschied, which had its first documentary mention in , belonged together with Regulshausen, Gerach and Hintertiefenbach to Mettlach Abbey.
Regarded as the origin of the village of Kirchenbollenbach is the foundation of a church by Archbishop of Mainz Willigis sometime after The earliest documentary evidence of the village goes back to when it was called Bolinbach.
It is first known to have been a fief held by the Lords of Schwarzenberg from the Counts of Zweibrücken, whereafter it passed in to the Waldgraves and Rhinegraves of Kirn.
One local peculiarity here was that a Catholic sideline of the otherwise mainly Protestant Rhinegraves ended up holding sway in Kirchenbollenbach, and under Prince Johann Dominik of Salm -Kyrburg, this line not only founded a new Catholic parish but also introduced a simultaneum at the local church.
The foundation stone of today's village of Mittelbollenbach is said to be the estate of Bollenbach, which was mentioned in as a holding of the Lords of Oberstein in the area of the Winterhauch woodland.
In , the Dukes of Lorraine were enfeoffed with Nahbollenbach and Mittelbollenbach, which in the wake of the death of the last Lord of Oberstein led to bitter arguments over the complicated inheritance arrangements.
Only in did Lorraine finally relinquish its claims in Electoral Trier's favour. Until , Nahbollenbach and Mittelbollenbach shared the same history.
Then, Nahbollenbach was acknowledged by Lorraine as an allodial holding of Oberstein, although beginning in it was an Electoral-Trier fief held by Oberstein.
The oldest documentary mention comes from The oft-used other alternative name, Martin-Weierbach, stems from the church's patron saint.
After the French dissolved all the old lordships, they introduced a sweeping reorganization of territorial and social structure beginning in The whole area belonged to the arrondissement of Birkenfeld in the Department of Sarre.
Until , this was French territory. However, there was quite a heavy tax burden imposed by the new rulers, and there was also continuing conscription of men into the French army.
Both of these things weighed heavily on France's Rhineland citizens. After Napoleonic rule ended, the area was restructured.
On the grounds of Article 25  of the concluding acts of the Congress of Vienna , the northern part of the Department of Sarre was at first given to the Kingdom of Prussia in June Since Prussia was obliged under the terms of the Treaty of Paris to cede an area out of this parcel containing 69, inhabitants to other powers — 20, souls each to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and the Duke of Oldenburg , along with smaller cessions to smaller princes — and since this had also been reconfirmed in Article 49  of the concluding acts of the Congress of Vienna, the region underwent further territorial division.
The Dukes were not satisfied with this territorial gain, and for their part, the people in the territory were not satisfied with their new rulers.
In , the area was sold for two million Thaler to Prussia and made into the Sankt Wendel district. Later, after the First World War , the Treaty of Versailles stipulated, among other things, that 26 of the Sankt Wendel district's 94 municipalities had to be ceded to the British - and French- occupied Saar.
The Prussians were themselves not well liked leaders, as they sometimes imposed their order with military might.
They were known, and hated, for, among other things, putting a protest rally of the Hambach Festival in Sankt Wendel in May , complete with a liberty pole in the Napoleonic tradition, to an end using military force, after Coburg had called on Prussia for help in the matter.
French law was allowed to stand. This continued work on the patchwork quilt of little states covering Germany was judged very critically in Idar and Oberstein, whereas Birkenfeld , which had as a result of the new political arrangement been raised to residence town, found little to complain about.
The jewellery industry there, which even by this time had become national, perhaps international in scope, and indeed the jewel dealers themselves, who now found themselves living in a little provincially oriented town, perceived the new arrangement, though, as a backward step, particularly so after the years that France had ruled.
It had had its worldly metropolis of Paris with its good business. The dealers, therefore, tried energetically, but without success, to have their land reannexed to Prussia.
On the other hand, the Oldenburgers quickly managed to make themselves popular among the people by installing an unselfish government that established an independent judiciary and introducing various programmes that favoured farmers and the economy.
A well regulated school system — in , a public school was built in Oberstein — and the temporary suspension of military conscription only helped to support this positive picture.
Roads were expanded and a postal coach service for persons, bulk mailings and bulky goods was set up. A further economic upswing was brought by the building of the Nahe Valley Railway , especially when the stretch from Bad Kreuznach to Oberstein opened on 15 December This Landesteil , along with the whole Rhineland, was occupied by the French on 4 December They did not withdraw until 30 June After the Nazis had first given up a declaration of tolerance for the existing government, they were then soon demanding that the Landtag be dissolved.
Since this was not forthcoming, the Nazis filed suit for a referendum, and they got their way. This resulted in dissolution on 17 April In the ensuing new elections on 20 May, the Nazis won Through this new law, 18 formerly self-administering municipalities were amalgamated; this included the self-administering towns having been granted town rights in of Idar and Oberstein, which were amalgamated with each other and also with the municipalities of Algenrodt and Tiefenstein to form the new town of Idar-Oberstein.
The law foreshadowed what was to come: It would be applied within a few weeks, without further discussion or participation, to the exclusion of the public and against the will of municipalities, who had not even been asked whether they wanted it, to places such as Herrstein and Oberwörresbach, Rötsweiler and Nockenthal, or Hoppstädten and Weiersbach.
After the Second World War , along with the whole district, the town's whole municipal area passed to the then newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
In the course of administrative restructuring in Rhineland-Palatinate , nine surrounding municipalities were amalgamated with Idar-Oberstein.
On 7 June , the municipalities of Enzweiler, Göttschied, Hammerstein and Regulshausen were amalgamated, and on 7 November they were followed by Georg-Weierbach, Kirchenbollenbach, Mittelbollenbach, Nahbollenbach and Weierbach.
Before the administrative restructuring, there were extensive, sometimes behind-closed-doors talks by the then mayor of Idar-Oberstein, Dr.
Wittmann, with offers of negotiation to all together 22 municipalities in the surrounding area. One of the reasons for this was a tendency that had been noted for people from Idar-Oberstein to move out of town to the surrounding municipalities, which were opening up extensive new building areas — among others Göttschied, Rötsweiler-Nockenthal and Kirschweiler — whereas within the town itself, given the problematic lie of the land, there were hardly any.
The same problem saw to it that there was a dearth of land for industrial location. Surprising was the desire expressed by Weierbach, which came without one of Idar-Oberstein's initiatives, to join the new greater town, for at the time, Weierbach did not even border on the town, and Weierbach itself was then foreseen as the future nucleus of its own greater municipality, or perhaps even town, together with the municipalities of Fischbach, Georg-Weierbach and Bollenbach, which would have been amalgamated with this municipality had the original plan come about.
With the exception of Georg-Weierbach, the proposal to amalgamate these villages with the town of Idar-Oberstein had notable majorities, either in the villages themselves or on their councils, in favour of dissolving their respective municipalities and then merging with the town.
Nevertheless, bitter discussions and even administrative legal disputes arose in the former Amt of Weierbach, which was now bereft of its core municipalities.
In April , the Amt of Weierbach lodged a constitutional grievance with the Verfassungsgerichtshof Rheinland-Pfalz Rhineland-Palatinate Constitutional Court , which ruled on 8 July that the state law for administrative simplification in Rhineland-Palatinate was in parts unconstitutional.
The right to self-administration of the Amt of Weierbach, it furthermore ruled, was being infringed, and the municipal league's vitality was being jeopardized.
Thus, Weierbach, Georg-Weierbach, Nahbollenbach, Mittelbollenbach and Kirchenbollenbach were, with immediate effect, demerged from the town and reinstated as self-administering municipalities.
After bitter arguments between the town of Idar-Oberstein together with the amalgamation supporters on the one side and the Amt of Weierbach together with the amalgamation opponents on the other, who promoted their views in demonstrations , at gatherings and in letter duels in newspaper correspondence pages, a poll was taken in early September with a vote in the Amt of Weierbach.
With this expansion of the town, the centres of gravity in the Birkenfeld district had been shifted considerably. Idar-Oberstein could further grow as a middle centre: Since Idar-Oberstein had not only a good general infrastructure but also, after the Steinbach Reservoir was brought into service, a more than adequate water supply, the option of amalgamating themselves with the town became attractive to many further municipalities.
The municipalities of Rötsweiler-Nockenthal, Siesbach , Gerach, Veitsrodt , Kirschweiler, Hettenrodt and Mackenrodt were each to receive an offer of amalgamation.
The district administration in Birkenfeld then got involved, and it was decided by the district assembly Kreistag that Idar-Oberstein's amalgamation policy, which was deemed to be reckless, should be censured.
Since a certain disenchantment with all these amalgamations had meanwhile set in both in the outlying centres and in the town of Idar-Oberstein itself, all further initiatives either got nowhere or were shelved.
Idar-Oberstein has its connections with the notorious outlaw Johannes Bückler — , commonly known as Schinderhannes.
His parents lived in Idar around , and Oberstein was the scene of one of his earliest misdeeds in He spent a whole Louis d'or on drinks at an inn.
He had stolen it from an innkeeper named Koch from Veitsrodt who had meant to use it to buy brandy. Their relationship yielded a daughter and a son, Franz Wilhelm.
After Schinderhannes was beheaded for his crimes in , Juliana married first a gendarme, with whom she had seven children, and then after his death a livestock herder and day labourer.
According to legend, there were two noble brothers, Wyrich and Emich, who both fell in love with a beautiful girl named Bertha.
Bertha was from a noble line that occupied the nearby Lichtenburg Castle. Neither brother was aware of the other's feelings for Bertha.
When Wyrich, the elder brother, was away on some unknown business, Emich succeeded in securing Bertha's affections and, subsequently, married her.
When Emich announced the news to his brother, Wyrich's temper got the better of him. In the heat of the moment, he hurled his brother out of a window of the castle and sent him to his death on the rocks below.
Wyrich was almost immediately filled with remorse. With the counsel of a local abbot, he began a long period of penance.
At this time, Bertha disappears from the historical record. Many romantics feel that she died of a broken heart.
As Wyrich waited for a heavenly sign showing that he was forgiven, the abbot suggested that he build a church on the exact place where his brother died.
Wyrich worked and prayed himself into exhaustion. However, the moment the church was completed, he received his sign: Wyrich died soon after this.
When the local bishop came to consecrate the new church, he found the noble lord dead on its steps. Wyrich was later placed in the same tomb with his brother.
Idar-Oberstein is known as a gemstone centre. Until the 18th century, the area was a source for agate and jasper. A combination of low-cost labour and energy helped the gemstone-working industry flourish.
The river Nahe provided free water power for the cutting and polishing machines at the mills. In the 18th century, though, gemstone finds in the Hunsrück were dwindling, making life harder for the local people.
Many left to try their luck abroad. Some went as far as Brazil , where they found that gemstones could be recovered from open-pit mines or even found in rivers and streams.
The locally common tradition of preparing meat over an open fire, churrasco , was also adopted by the newcomers and even found its way back to their homeland by way of gemstone shipping.
Agate nodules were shipped back as ballast on empty vessels that had offloaded cargo in Brazil. The cheap agates were then transported to Idar-Oberstein.
In the early 19th century, many people were driven out of the local area by hunger and also went to South America. In , emigrants from Idar-Oberstein discovered the world's most important agate deposit in Brazil's state of Rio Grande do Sul.
As early as , the first delivery of agate from Rio Grande do Sul had been made to Idar-Oberstein. The Brazilian agate exhibited very even layers, much evener that those seen in the local agates.
This made them especially good for making engraved gems. After the Second World War , the region had to redefine itself once more, and it developed into a leading hub in the trade of gemstones from Brazil and Africa.
More recently, however, competition from Thailand and India has hit the region hard. The council is made up of 40 honorary council members, who were elected by proportional representation at the municipal election held on 25 May , and the full-time mayor Oberbürgermeister as chairman.
The municipal election held on 25 May yielded the following results: The German blazon reads: Im halbrunden silbernen Schild befindet sich ein aufgerichteter roter Forsthaken, begleitet im rechten Obereck von einer sechsblättrigen roten Rose mit goldenem Kelch und grünen Kelchblättern, links unten von einer roten Eichel.
The town's arms might in English heraldic language be described thus: Argent a cramp palewise sinister with a crossbar gules between in dexter chief a rose foiled of six of the second barbed and seeded proper and in sinister base an acorn slipped palewise of the second.
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